Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Gupta Eye Hospital

What it is?


Age-related macular degeneration — also called macular degeneration, AMD or ARMD — is deterioration of the macula, which is the small central area of the retina of the eye that controls visual acuity.

The health of the macula determines our ability to read, recognize faces, drive, watch television, use a computer or phone, and perform any other visual task that requires us to see fine detail.

Macular degeneration is classified as either dry AMD or wet AMD.

Dry AMD

Dry macular degeneration is an early stage of the disease. It appears to be caused by aging and thinning of macular tissues, depositing of pigment in the macula, or a combination of the two processes.

Dry AMD is diagnosed when yellowish spots known as drusen begin to accumulate in and around the macula. It is believed these spots are deposits or debris from deteriorating tissue.

Wet AMD

In wet macular degeneration, abnormal blood vessels grow beneath the retina and leak blood and fluid. This leakage causes permanent damage to light-sensitive retinal cells (photoreceptors) in the macula and creates a central blind spot (scotoma) in the affected person’s visual field.

Who is at risk for age-related macular degeneration?

Age-related macular degeneration symptoms and signs

Age-related macular degeneration usually produces a slow, painless loss of vision. In rare cases, however, vision loss can be sudden. Early signs of vision loss from AMD include shadowy areas in your central vision, or unusually fuzzy or distorted spots that affect only the central portion of your field of vision.

Viewing a chart of black lines arranged in a graph pattern (Amsler grid) is one way to tell if you are having these vision problems.

Eye care practitioners often detect early signs of macular degeneration before symptoms occur. Usually this is accomplished through a retinal exam. When macular degeneration is suspected, a brief test using an Amsler grid that measures your central vision may be performed.

Facilities for ARMD Treatment

  • OCT / OCT-A (Zeiss, Germany)
  • T-Scan
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